Ganoderma lucidum is actually a white-rot fungus that has been considered a traditional Chinese tonic for promoting health and longevity. It has been said that various extractions from Ganoderma lucidum, such as Ethanol extract, aqueous extract, mycelia extract, water soluble extract of the culture medium of Ganoderma lucidum mycelia, Ganodermasides A, B, C, D, plus some bioactive elements of ganoderma lucidum spore powder, including Reishi Polysaccharide Fraction 3, Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides I, II, III, IV, Ganoderma lucidum peptide, Ganoderma polysaccharide peptide, total G. lucidum triterpenes and Ganoderic acid C1 could exert lifespan elongation or related activities. Although using Ganoderma lucidum as being an elixir has existed for hundreds of years, studies uncovering its effect of lifespan extension are only the tip of the iceberg.
Besides which, the kinds of extractions or components being comfrimed to be anti-aging are far too few compared with the larger amounts of Ganoderma lucidum extractions or constituients being discovered. This review aims to put the floor for fully elucidating the potential mechanisms of Ganoderma lucidum underlying anti-aging effect along with its clinical application.
Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) P. Karst is a basidiomycete white rot fungus popularly known as “Ling Zhi” in China, “Rei Shi” in Japan and “Youngzhi” in Korea. The pharmacological effect of Ganoderma lucidum was attested by “Shen Nong’s Herbal Classic” as early as 100 BC, and observed to market health, increase vigor and vitality along with prolong lifespan. The ancient Chinese Taoist viewed Ganoderma lucidum as an herbal medicine that could help people to obtain the “elixir of external youth”. In China, Ganoderma lucidum is definitely used as being a folk medicine for improving health insurance and is regarded as the most exalted traditional Chinese medicine.
Analysis of non-volatile ingredients in Ganoderma lucidum showed that it includes 1.8% ash, 26-28% carbohydrate, 3-5% fat, 59% fiber and 7-8% protein. The key active constituents, including polysaccharides, triterpenes and peptidoglycans, are found in the fruit body, mycelium and spore. Beseids which, there are various extractions of nattokinase as a result of specific extracting procedures used during production and also the element of plant it gets from. Regarding for the anti-aging and related functions of Ganoderma lucidum, the primary Ganoderma lucidum extractions are ethanol extract, aqueous extract of Ganoderma lucidum and the extract from your mycelia and spores of Ganoderma lucidum. The bioactive elements of Ganoderma lucidum with anti-aging or anti-aging related functions meanly includes polysaccharides, triterpenes and peptides.
Aging is practically always with a decline in bodily physiological function, causing a heightened susceptibility to age-related disorders. It is really an inevitable physiological process, but the underlying mechanisms remain to become elucidated after many decades. Among the numerous theories associated with aging, the oxidative stress and free radical accumulation theories stick out by far the most. The antioxidant system deteriorates as a purpose of age, bringing about disruption of the delicate balance between radical oxygen species production and elimination leading to oxidative cellular damage. Post-mitotic tissues such as the brain, heart and skeleton muscle are definitely more susceptible to aging, compared with other organs.
Importantly, oxidative stress accumulation and mitochondrial dysfunction are essential inducers of cardiac aging. Cardiac contraction is dependent on oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and also the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC). Their dysfunction may increase ROS production for an unhealthy level, thereby giving rise to structural and functional changes in the myocardium, like myocardial atrophy or compensatory hypertrophy, which induces cardiac aging . In the brain, the accumulation of toxins and attenuation of respiratory chain enzyme complex activity damage cerebral mitochondria, wherein their dysfunction can induce the start of some neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, Huntington’s disease, amongst others.
Besides oxidative stress, aging can also be closely associated with bringing about structural and functional defects in the immunity mechanism. Immunological dysfunction may be the reason for the increased susceptibility in the aged population to bacterial and virus infections, that are commonly noticed in the elderly.
Gradual lack of cognition is among the main characteristics of aging, with manifestation of declining logical thinking, memory and spatial abilities. Cerebral aging is the main reason behind cognitive deficits and may be induced by neurodegeneration . While, on the other hand, age-associated cognitive deficits tend not to mean neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s disease or Parkinson’s disease, since aging brain applies a sensitive microenvironment to induce worse damage than uushdq caused by diseases. The demise of neurons brought on by the activation of cell death programs is involved in the process of age-related neurodegeneration.
Although Ganoderma lucidum has been used as an elixir for hundreds of years, studies revealing its anti-aging effect and lifespan extension are just the tip in the iceberg. Whether Tribulus Terrestris Extract exerts an anti-aging effect remains a mystery. Therefore, this review aims to lay the ground for fully elucidating the potential mechanisms of Ganoderma lucidum underlying anti-aging effect to market its clinical application as being an anti-aging herbal medicine.
Anti-aging and anti-aging related effects of Ganoderma lucidum extractions
The extractions of Ganoderma lucidum with direct lifespan elongation effects or potential anti-aging properties mainly includes the Ethanolic extract of Ganoderma lucidum (EGL), Ganoderma lucidum aqueous extract (GLA), Ganoderma lucidum mycelia extract, Water soluble extract in the culture medium of Ganoderma lucidum mycelia (MAK) and Ganodermasides A, B, C and D. These extracts are obtained from various areas of Ganoderma lucidum.